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Pergamum (Bergama)

Bergama is a small town, on the north of 3rd biggest city of Turkey İzmir. it is 117 kms away from Izmir's city center. On Bergama's north side there is a city  called balıkesir. On its south it has border with the city Manisa. Which was one of the important cities of the ottoman empire. Dikili is a small town on the Aegean sea and it is so closed to Begama on the west. Bergama has a population of approximately 100.000 people. Economy is based on agriculture, tourism and hand made goods. Olive and olive oil is also so important and well known products of Bergama. Bergama's cotton has the 3rd best quality after the Egyptian and Californian cottons. Hand made carpets and rugs are also the main income for Bergama's inhabitants.


First excavations of Pergamom was started by famous archaeologist Carl Humman. Carl humman was also an engineer and architect. He was the first to discover the famous temple of Zeus, and he was the one who took the temple to Germany despite he was so regretful of taking it away and he wanted to be buried in the Pargamum Acropolis. Pergamom was one of the greatest cities of the Hellenistic periıod for about 150 years. Philetarios expanded the  borders till the Marmara sea. Grandson of philetarios king the 1st attolos was really enthusiastic about art and culture. The city's first spectacular structures was built on his time. Eumenes the second had made good relations with the roman empire, and he made his city one of the greatest in the Hellenistic period. It had a rich library and king the 2. Eumenes constructed the most beautiful structures on acropolis. Eumenes the 2. took the great city Athena as an example for his city and constructed it like that.and he was one of the greatest city of Hellenistic period. After 2. Eumenes his brother 2. Attolos became the king and after him, his son the 3rd. Attolos ruled the kingdom and after his death he handed down his state to the roman empire.


Emperor Augustus constructed oldest pegamum kings monuments on pergamum. he finished temple the of Hadrian and Trajan. repaired temple of Caracalla and Dionysus. During the christian period it was also an important center. One of the seven churches was here. During the Byzantine period city was surrounded with high walls and they used most of the reliefs, statues and stone blocks of ancient pragamum. After 716 city was captured by Arabians and by 1330 the region was started to concured by the Turks.

Acropolis which means upper state was an area which commune can spend their time, made shopping, sightseeing, making publıic meetings, the main idea of upper agora with the other name state agora was handling the states affairs.


There are lots of religious buildings on Acropolis but most of the buildings was not used for religious purposes. During the Hellenistic period religion was a occupation for people who were mostly illiterate. The temple of Zeus was a symbol of successful wars and the rising kingdom. Temple of Hera Athena Dionysus, asklepios and agora were not using for religious purposes but for public to spend their time in hot rooms during the winter and escaping from the burning sun during the summer.
The city has numerous spectacular structures most important ones are the heroon, the temple of Zeus, the temple of Athena, the  library, arsenals, the temple of Dionysus, the temple of Trajan, asklepios and gymnasium.

Pergamum (Bergama) Map

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